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Physics of dynamic rupture pulses and macroscopic earthquake source properties in elastic and plastic media

Gabriel, Alice-Agnes (2013), Physics of dynamic rupture pulses and macroscopic earthquake source properties in elastic and plastic media, Diss. ETH No. 20567, ETH Zurich, A dissertation submitted to ETH Zurich for the degree of Doctor of Sciences.

Abstract
This dissertation concerns complexities in earthquake source dynamics and the resulting
implications for seismic ground motion. Its ndings base on numerical and analytical investigations
that are validated by comparison with seismic observations. The core of this
work is a comprehensive set of 2D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations with a spectral
element method incorporating faults. The fault rheology is governed by a velocity-andstate-
dependent friction law, utilising severe velocity-weakening at high slip rates and
a homogeneous initial stress state. Motivated by seismological observations, laboratory
experiments, and theoretical models which indicate that earthquakes can operate in different
manners, we classify a diversity of rupture styles based on their stability (decaying,
steady, or growing), rupture speed (subshear or supershear), healing properties (cracks
or pulses), and complexity (simple or multiple fronts). Such rupture styles and their
transitions depend on the state of stress and on the strength of the fault, and thus may
help identify rheological parameters along active fault zones. We study the alteration of
macroscopic rupture properties by o -fault energy dissipation into plastic deformation,
which may be triggered by high stress concentrations at earthquake rupture fronts. Investigating
in detail the energy balance and equation of motion of self-similar pulse-like
ruptures, we are able to de ne quantitative relations between o -fault energy dissipation
and macroscopic source properties. These ndings contribute to a self-consistent theoretical
framework for the study of the earthquake energy balance based on observable
earthquake source parameters. The emanated seismic wave elds contain signatures of
rupture styles and plasticity in near- eld seismograms, source spectra, and in damage
patterns o the fault. The asymmetrically induced plastic strain elds contribute to the
total seismic moment. Identifying the diversity of rupture patterns in real earthquakes
poses an interesting observational challenge. The long-term objective of this work is
to provide physical constraints with respect to the source of earthquakes applicable in
strong ground motion prediction, seismic hazard analysis, and source inversion methods.
Further information
BibTeX
@phdthesis{id1844,
  author = {Alice-Agnes Gabriel},
  month = {apr},
  note = {A dissertation submitted to ETH Zurich for the degree of Doctor of Sciences},
  school = {ETH Zurich},
  title = {{Physics of dynamic rupture pulses and macroscopic earthquake source properties in elastic and plastic media}},
  type = {Diss. ETH No. 20567},
  year = {2013},
  language = {en},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-009761502},
}
EndNote
%0 Thesis
%A Gabriel, Alice-Agnes
%D 2013
%Z A dissertation submitted to ETH Zurich for the degree of Doctor of Sciences
%T Physics of dynamic rupture pulses and macroscopic earthquake source properties in elastic and plastic media
%U http://dx.doi.org/10.3929/ethz-a-009761502
%8 apr
%I ETH Zurich
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Printed 06. Dec 2019 11:21